Basics of Web Technologies
After various client meetings and discussing different platforms within web technologies, the web specialist team at TA digital has put some basic information together for non-technical users on web technologies! The fundamental idea behind web technologies is to develop a Website.
14 basic needs are required for Web Development:-
Browsers are the interpreters of the web. They request information and then when they receive it, they show us on the page in a format we can see and understand.
- Google Chrome: Currently, the most popular browser brought to you by Google
- Safari: Apple’s Web browser
- Firefox : Open-source browser supported by the Mozilla Foundation
- Internet Explorer : Micosoft’s browser.
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is used to create the actual content of the page, such as written text.
CSS (Cascade Styling Sheets) is responsible for the design or style of the website, including the layout, visual effects and background color.
4. Programming Languages:
A programming language is a formal computer language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs to control the behavior of a machine or to express algorithms. Below are a few examples of different programming languages commonly used:
- Python – Used by the Django framework and used in a lot of mathematical calculations.
- Ruby : Used by the Ruby on Rails framework.
- PHP – Used by WordPress
- Go – Its a newer language built for speed.
- ObjectiveC – the programming language behind IOS (your iPhone), lead by Apple.
- Swift – Apple’s newest programming language.
- Java – Used by Android (Google) and a lot of desktop application.
Frameworks are built to make building and working with programming languages easier. Frameworks typically take all the difficult, repetitive tasks in setting up a new web application and either do them for you or make them very easy for you to do.
- Ruby on Rails – a full-stack framework built using ruby
- Django – a full-stack framework built using python
- Ionic – a mobile framework
- WordPress – a CMS (Content Management System) built on PHP. Currently, about 20% of all websites run on this framework.
- Drupal – a CMS framework built using PHP.
- .NET – a full-stack framework built by Microsoft.
Libraries are groupings of code snippets to enable a large amount of functionality without having to write it all by yourself. Libraries typically also go through the trouble to make sure the code is efficient and works well across browsers and devices (not always the case, but typically they do).
Databases are where all your data is stored. It’s like a bunch of filing cabinets with folders filled with files. Databases come mainly in two flavors: SQL and NoSQL. SQL (Structured Query Language) databases have been a primary data storage mechanism for more than four decades. Usage exploded in the late 1990s with the rise of web applications and open-source options such as MySQL, PostgreSQL and SQLite. NoSQL databases have existed since the 1960s, but have been recently gaining traction with popular options such as MongoDB, CouchDB, Redis and Apache Cassandra.
- Mongo DB – is an open-sourced NoSQL database and is currently the only database supported by Meteor.
- Redis – is the most popular key-value store. It is lighting fast for retrieving data but doesn’t allow for much depth in the data storage.
- PostgreSQL – is a popular open-sourced SQL database.
- MySQL – is another popular open-sourced SQL database. MySQL is used in WordPress websites
- Oracle – is an enterprise SQL database.
- SQL Server – is an SQL server manger created by Microsoft.
A client is one user of an application. It’s you and me when we visit google.com. Clients can be desktop computers, tablets, or mobile devices. There are typically multiple clients interacting with the same application stored on a server.
Server is where the application code is typically stored. Requests are made to the server from clients, and the server will gather the appropriate information and respond to those requests.
Back end Development refers to the server side of development where you are primarily focused with how the site works. Making updates and changes in addition to monitoring functionality of the site will be your primary responsibility. This type of web development usually consists of three parts: a server, an application, and a database. Code written by back end developers is what communicates the database information to the browser. Anything you can’t see easily with the eye such as databases and servers is the work of a back end developer. Back end developer positions are often called programmers or web developers. Many back end developers know front end languages such as HTML and CSS but need to use languages such as Java, PHP, Ruby on Rails, Python, and .Net to get the back end job done.
Protocols are standardised instructions for how to pass information back and forth between computers and devices.
- DDP : is a new protocol created in connection with Meteor. The DDP protocol uses websockets to create a consistent connection between the client and the server. This constant connection let’s websites and data on those websites update in real-time without refreshing your browser.
- REST : is a protocol mainly used for API’s. It has standard methods like GET, POST, and PUT that let information be exchanged between applications.
An API is an application programming interface. It is created by the developer of an application to allow other developers to use some of the applications functionality without sharing code. Developers expose “end points” which are like inputs and outputs of the application. Using an API can control access with API keys. Examples of good API’s are those created by Facebook, Twitter, and Google for their web services.
14. Data Formats
Data formats are the structure of how data is stored.
- JSON – is quickly becoming the most popular data format
- XML – was the main data format early in the web days and predominantly used by Microsoft systems.
- CSV – is data formatted by commas. Excel data is typically formatted this way.